Types of Hormones in the Human Body

Types of Hormones in the Human Body

Hormones are the body’s chemical messengers that deliver signals that control almost all of the major functions that keep us alive and healthy. Among the various types of hormones in the human body, we find chemicals that influence metabolism, libido, digestion, brain functions, glucose uptake, stress, fertility, and more.

When we look at how many types of hormones in the human body keep us going, we can either count them by the sheer number or the types.

There are 4 main types of hormones:

  1. Amino acids
  2. Eicosanoids
  3. Peptides
  4. Steroids

According to different lists, there may be anywhere from 50 to over 60 different types of hormones in the human body; however, you will find over 70 in our list below.

Some of these hormones have the sole purpose of stimulating the release of other such chemicals. Others, such as growth hormone, have vast effects throughout the body.

In the charts below, we will show the type, name, producer, and functions or effects of each hormone.

Here are the different types of hormones in the human body and their functions:

Amino Acids

Epinephrine also known as Adrenaline Adrenal gland Blood pressure, increases heart  rate, glycogenolysis (liver), lipolysis, fight or flight response, muscle contraction, respiratory rate vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Melatonin Pineal gland Circadian rhythm, sleep
Triiodothyronine Thyroid gland peripheral tissue Increases metabolism, cardiac output, heart and ventilation rates
Thyroxine Thyroid Metabolism regulation


Prostaglandins Made by chemical reactions as needed Help the body deal with injury and tissue damage, blood clot formation, inflammation, labor induction
Leukotrienes White blood cells Increase vascular permeability, helps with asthma attacks and allergies
Prostacyclin Endothelium Inhibits platelet activation, vasodilator
Thromboxane Platelets Vasoconstriction


Amylin Pancreas Inhibits digestive secretion and reduces food intake
Anti-Mullerian hormone Testes Inhibits prolactin and TRH release
Adiponectin Adipose tissue Modulates glucose and lipid metabolism
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (corticotropin) Anterior pituitary gland Synthesis of corticosteroids
Angiotensinogen and angiotensin Liver Vasoconstriction, releases aldosterone
Antidiuretic hormone Posterior pituitary Water retention in kidneys, ACTH release, moderate vasoconstriction
Atrial-natriuretic peptide (atriopeptin) Heart Vasodilator
Brain natriuretic peptide Heart Dilates
Calcitonin Thyroid Helps regulate calcium and inhibits osteoclast breakdown of bone
Cholecystokinin Duodenum Aids digestion and reduces appetite
Corticotropin-releasing hormone Hypothalamus Influences cortisol release
Cortistatin Cerebral cortex Induces slow-wave sleep
Enkephalin Kidney Pain regulator
Endothelin Vascular endothelium Smooth muscle contraction
Erythropoietin Kidney Stimulates production of erythrocytes
Follicle-stimulating hormone Anterior pituitary Spermatogenesis in males, maturation of Graafian follicles in female ovaries
Galanin Gastrointestinal tract and CNS Water balance, osmotic regulation energy homeostasis
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide Duodenum and jejunum mucosa Induces insulin secretion
Gastrin Stomach, duodenum Gastric acid secretion
Ghrelin Stomach Appetite stimulator
Glucagon Pancreas Increases blood glucose levels, liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
Glucagon-like peptide-1 Ileum Synthesis and release of insulin
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Hypothalamus Stimulates FSH and LH secretion from pituitary
Growth hormone-releasing hormone Hypothalamus Stimulates GH release from pituitary
Hepcidin Liver Inhibits cellular iron export
Human chorionic gonadotropin Placenta Supports corpus luteum at pregnancy onset
Human placental lactogen Placenta Increases insulin and IGF-1 production, insulin resistance, carbohydrate intolerance
Growth hormone (somatotropin) Anterior pituitary Stimulates cellular reproduction, IGF-1 secretion, metabolism, immunity, libido, and more
Inhibin Ovaries, testes, fetus Inhibits FSH production
Insulin Pancreas Controls glucose levels
Insulin growth factor  (somatomedin) Liver Supports cellular reproduction, mediator of many growth hormone effects
Leptin Adipose tissue Decreases appetite and supports metabolism
Lipotropin Anterior pituitary Stimulates melanin production, lipolysis, steroidogenesis
Luteinizing hormone Anterior pituitary Female ovulation and male testosterone production
Melanocyte stimulating hormone Anterior pituitary, pars intermedia Melanogenesis in hair and skin
Motilin Small intestine Gastric activity
Orexin Hypothalamus Wakefulness, increases appetite and energy expenditure
Osteocalcin Bones Testosterone synthesis, muscle function, memory formation, energy expenditure
Oxytocin Posterior pituitary Stimulates breast milk, circadian homeostasis, cervical and vaginal contraction
Pancreatic polypeptide Pancreas Regulates pancreatic and gastrointestinal secretions, affects hepatic glycogen levels
Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid Activates vitamin D, increases blood calcium and reabsorption in kidney
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide Multiple Induces hypophysis activity, is a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator
Prolactin Anterior pituitary Milk production, sexual gratification
Prolactin releasing hormone Hypothalamus Prolactin secretion
Relaxin Uterus, placenta, mammary glands, corpus luteum Relaxes pelvis ligaments, softens and widens cervix for childbirth
Renin Kidney Regulates blood pressure
Secretin Duodenum Stimulates liver and pancreas secretions
Somatostatin Hypothalamus, gastrointestinal system, pancreas Inhibits growth hormone, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, cholecystokinin
Thrombopoietin Kidney, liver, striated muscle Produces platelets
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) Anterior pituitary Stimulates thyroxine and triiodothyronine secretion
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone Hypothalamus Regulates thyroid gland activity and thyroid stimulating hormone secretion
Vasoactive intestinal peptide Pancreas, Heart contractility, vasodilation, glycogenolysis, lowers blood pressure, reduces inflammation
Guanylin Epithelium Regulates intestinal water and salt transport
Uroguanylin Renal tissues Regulates renal water and salt transport

HT Medical Center provides blood analysis to detect the most common forms of hormone deficiency or imbalance in adults over thirty.

Steroid Hormones – In a Class All Their Own

The steroid hormones come from three places:

  • The testes
  • The ovaries
  • The adrenal glands

The basis of all steroid hormones is cholesterol. Steroid hormones are identified as either adrenal or sex hormones as shown in the classifications below:


Cortisol Adrenal cortex Anti-inflammatory, controls blood sugar levels, salt and water balance, influences memory formation, stress hormone


Aldosterone Adrenal cortex Increases blood volume by absorbing sodium in kidneys


Testosterone Testes, ovaries, adrenal glands Libido support, muscle and bone growth, brain functions, hair growth
Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA Ovaries, testes, kidneys Precursor hormone for testosterone and estrogen
Androstenedione Adrenal glands, gonads Stepping stone for estrogen and testosterone production
Dihydrotestosterone Multiple, enzyme 5 alpha reductase converts testosterone into DHT Stimulates development of male characteristics, too much can lead to prostate growth and hair loss


Estradiol Ovaries, testes, aromatase converts testosterone into estradiol Uterine and endometrial growth reduces bone resorption, maintains blood vessels, assists with platelets and circulation, increases growth hormone, cortisol, and SHBG, promotes lung functions, and more
Estrone Ovaries Least abundant form of estrogen
Estriol Placenta Role in pregnancy is unknown, may help with hot flashes and menopause symptoms


Progesterone Ovaries, testes, adrenal glands, placenta Assists thyroid hormone functions, pregnancy support, source hormone, regulates estrogen effects, nerve functions, anti-inflammatory, normalizes blood clotting, and more


Calcitriol (1,25 – dihydroxy vitamin D 3) Skin/proximal tubule of kidneys Active form of vitamin D 3
Increases calcium and phosphate absorption
Calcidiol (25 – hydroxy vitamin D 3) Skin/proximal tubule of kidneys Inactive form of vitamin D 3

Most Common Hormone Deficiencies in Adults

While any hormone deficiency can cause a particular problem, some create widespread havoc that can lead to serious health concerns such as heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, dementia, obesity, atherosclerosis, and other medical issues.

What types of hormones in the human body create the biggest problems if they become deficient?

Somatotropin (growth hormone) deficiency can impact metabolism, libido, immunity, cellular regeneration, and even brain functions.

Low testosterone can impact red blood cell production, metabolism, brain functions, libido, muscle development, and bone density.

Considering there are so many different kinds of hormones in the human body that can affect daily functions and well-being, it is crucial to ensure that their levels are maintained at a healthy state.

Find out more about hormone deficiency and treatment by contacting HT Medical Center.